Monday, February 17, 2020

Farewell, "Evil Genius"

Dr. Victor Abimbola Olaiya, known as the "Evil Genius" of Nigerian Highlife music, passed away Wednesday, February 12, at the age of 89. Thus ends an era in Nigerian music. Olaiya was probably the last paladin of the classic "Big Band" highlife style, certainly one of the few remaining practitioners of highlife of any kind in southwestern Nigeria. The genre continues as a guitar-based style in southeastern Nigeria, although there it is endangered as well.

The Daily Post of Lagos reports that President Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria responded to the news with a statement of condolences:

A statement signed by Femi Adesina, the president’s spokesperson, said President Buhari “condoles with the family, friends and all lovers of vintage highlife music as played by Dr Victor Abimbola Olaiya, who passed on at 89.” The President noted that the highlife maestro, known for his mastery of the trumpet, brought joy and delight to people across generations, with his songs which were both entertaining and didactic. 
According to President Buhari, “His place in history is guaranteed. He sang, not just for the entertainment value, but also taught critical lessons on life, good neighbourliness, and national cohesion. He will be sorely missed.” He urged the younger generations of musicians to learn a lesson from Olaiya, so that their songs can also remain evergreen, and outlive them, noting that the departed musician’s works transcended Nigeria, the West Coast, and, indeed, the African continent, the President prayed God to rest Olaiya’s soul, and comfort all those who mourn him.
Commiserations have poured in from across the Nigerian entertainment world. Ebenezer Obey said, “Nigeria has lost one of the African fathers of highlife music. He has contributed his quota to the development of the entertainment industry and I pray his soul rests in peace and God comforts his family. Olaiya was a very serious-minded person who projected the highlife music throughout the entire world. He is indeed a man to emulate. He later diverted to do business and he was a successful businessman also,.”

Olaiya was born on New Years Eve, 1930 in Calabar, present-day Cross River State, where his parents, Yorubas from southwestern Nigeria, had settled. Moving to Lagos after finishing secondary school he found his musical calling as a trumpeter with various local bands. In 1952 he left Bobby Benson's famous highlife orchestra to establish his own Cool Cats Band, achieving such popularity that he was chosen to play at Nigeria's Independence celebrations in 1960. Olaiya's band, rechristened the All Stars, was the launching pad for Fela Ransome-Kuti, Victor Uwaifo and numerous other musicians over the years. Olaiya and the Cool Cats were also called up to perform for the Nigerian Army during the Congo Crisis of the Early '60s and the Biafran war of 1967-70.

As highlife music receded in western Nigeria during the '70s Olaiya persisted, notching numerous hit records like "Trumpet Highlife" and "Omele 'Dele," serving as president of the Musicians Union of Nigeria, building a thriving business importing musical instruments, and establishing the Stadium Hotel in Surulere, Lagos, home of his Papingo Davalaya nightclub.

Papingo Davalaya (Polydor POLP 156, 1986) may be the last album Victor Olaiya ever recorded. It is a worthy coda to a life well-lived. Enjoy!

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Tina Ma Te

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Papingo Davalaya

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Africa

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Oruku Tindi Tindi

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Gbemi Sola

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Aiye Ye Dun

Dr. Victor Olaiya - Akwa Mberi Nugo

Download Papingo Davalaya as a zipped file here.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Malagasy Divas


Many years ago, Matthew Temple's Matsuli Music blog posted a series of fifty compilations, African Serenades. Back in 2007, I assembled a two-part installment for African Serenades, Vol. 47 Pts. 1 & 2: African Divas. Later I posted them here on Likembe as African Divas Vol. 1 and African Divas Vol. 2, which you can still download (follow the links)! Our good friend Ken Abrams later weighed in with two more volumes in the series. You can get African Divas Vol. 4 here.

For a long time I've been wanting to do another installment in the African Divas series. My idea for these collections is to get only the best music by female singers, eighty minutes or a CD's worth in each one, with the caveat that each installment would feature only artists that hadn't appeared in earlier volumes. By those criteria I easily have enough great music for at least two more sets.

However, I got sidetracked a while back. Lately the African music blogosphere has brought forth some excellent music from Madagascar - for instance, on the blogs Wallahi le Zein and Lola Vandaag. In search of more of these sounds, I took to YouTube, and discovered something I should have known already: If you're interested in what people in Africa are listening to right now, YouTube is where it's at, in all its crass, commercial, raw, AutoTuned glory. There's an incredible variety of sounds that don't make it to mainstream European and North American African music releases, which often contain music that's twee, deracinated or 20 to 30 years old.

Anyway, back to the subject of this post. I discovered something else: If you're in the market for talented female singers, Madagascar is the motherlode! There is an amazing diversity there, enough for a whole volume of African Divas, and probably more.

So I present to you this collection. My aim with Malagasy Divas was to gather only the best of Malagasy chanteuses, with as much variety as possible. The first half features the folkish sounds of Njava and Hanitra Ranaivo, the jazzy Faniah and Minah Bolimakoa, the "bubblegum music" of Wendy Cathalina, techno-pop hits by Tence Mena, Aïna Quach, and Black Nadia, even a reggae tune by Dah' Mama! Part Two covers two geographical extremes - pumped-up salegy from northwestern Madagascar by Perle Noire and Sisca, and raw, electrified tsapiky by Rasoa Kininike, Mizeha, Mirasoa and Mahafaly Mihisa from the southwest corner of the country.

With the exception of two tracks, all of the tunes here were downloaded from YouTube, so the sound quality is not always up to snuff, i.e. there's a fair amount of  digital clipping. I tried to correct for this with audio software, but the results were not satisfactory, so I left the files the way they were. It's not too distracting. From all the wonderful material that was available, it was very difficult trying to winnow it down to 80 minutes, so I've thrown in some videos that aren't included on Malagasy Divas. Here's the tracklist:

1. Paoary - Njava
2. Ny Foko No Ni Mbaiko - Faniah
3. Raopilany - Hanitra Ranaivo
4. Tsara Ny Tany – Minah Bolimakoa
5. Je T'emmènerai - Aïna Quach
6. Miangotro – Wendy Cathalina
7. Papa Money - Black Nadia w. H'Mia
8. Tompinbady – Tence Mena
9. Nahazo Ny Tiako - Dah' Mama
10. Salama Salimina – Perle Noire
11. Manambaly Mampirafy – Rasoa Kininike
12. Vorom-Be - Mizeha
13. Mahapotake - Mirasoa
14. Berene - Mahafaly Mihisa
15. Tara Baly - Sisca
Let's discuss the artists.

Njava was founded in Europe by a group of five brothers and sisters from Morondava in western Madagascar. They achieved international fame in the '90s with the groups Deep Forest and African Diva, and released two CDs. Two members of the group, Monika and Lala Njava, have gone on to solo careers. Monika sings lead on "Paoary," from Njava's 1999 album Vetse.

The eclectic sound of Faniah (full name Faniah Ramalanjaona) draws on jazz, R&B and Malagasy traditions. She came to notice in the reality show Pazzapa in Madagascar in 2004 and assiduously built a career until releasing her first album, Lavitra Ahy... in 2017, from which "Ny Foko No Mibaiko," ("My Heart Decides") is taken.

Hanitra Ranaivo was born in 1962 in Fianarantsoa, south central Madagascar. She established herself in the early '80s as a member of the folk-pop group Lolo Sy Ny Tariny. The band relocated to France later in the decade and subsequently dissolved, its members, among them Erick Manana, forging successful solo careers. Hanitra self-released her first solo album, Omeko Anao, containing "Raopilany," featured here.

Called "The Black Panther of Malagasy Funk," Minah Bolimakoa, from the northeast corner of the Red Island, has established herself as a model as well as a chanteuse. "Tsara Ny Tany" ("The Earth is Good") from last year, is only the most recent of her numerous hits. Here's a video of another one:

The background of Aïna Quach is diverse, as is her music. Born in Europe, her father is Chinese/Vietnamese and her mother is from Madagascar. She got her start as an artist at the age of 9 with a performance at the Embassy of Madgascar in Paris and has recorded and performed across Europe and the US. The song we hear, "Je T'emmènerai" ("I Will Take You") was recorded in 2016. She sings mainly in French but recorded a lovely album of traditional Malagasy songs in 2008, Ry Iarivo Tsy Foiko, with veteran guitarist Erick Manana.

Wendy Cathalina Rakotomalala just turned 18, but she's already made quite a mark on the Malagasy music scene. From Antsohihy in northwestern Madagascar, she's released an album, Voly, and a number of hit singles, among them her latest, "Miangotro" ("Please Be Careful"), presented here.

Kantoniana Ornella Edith Nadia, aka Black Nadia, has a reputation for packing in the crowds wherever she goes and has a number of international tours under her belt, including in China. She's from South Amboasary in far southeast Madagascar but has lived in Toliara in the southwest as well. Last year her hit with Nael, "Tsy Vazaha Fa Teany," was accused of plagiarizing the hit song "Yélélé" by Ivorian singer Elody and the controversy has only boosted views for both videos online! Yet the hits keep coming, not only 2019's "Papa Money," recorded with H'Mia and featured on Malagasy Divas, but this one, also from last year:

It's debatable who is the bigger star in Madagascar in 2020, Black Nadia or Tence Mena (née Hortencia Moroanjana). From Antsirana (formerly Diego Suarez) in far northern Madagascar, she started out as a dancer in groups like Ejema, Tirike, Wawa and Fandrama before hitting the scene on her own in 2010. Afropop Worldwide writes, "...Her roots lie in salegy dance music, generally associated with northern Madagascar, but like so many 'tropical' music artists today, Tence Mena has incorporated musical influences from a number of popular African dance music styles - ndombolo from Congo, coupé decalé from Ivory Coast, and others..." "Topimbady"("Spouse") is featured on Malagasy Divas. As one online profile put it, "...The story of Tence Mena is that of thousands of Malagasy women who (in the bush, but not only) spend their days at home, in the pain of waiting for a fickle husband...."

Dah' Mama (real name Elda Narijaona) was born in 1975 in the Sofia region of northern Madagascar, and got started in music at the age of 13. Her music is a fusion of antosy, a traditional style of the region, with afrobeat, but "Nahazo Ny Tiako" ("My Favorite") which we hear now, is reggae. Midi Madagasikara writes, "She is one of the most popular female stars of Malagasy tropical music and she proves every year during this period that she has a Golden Heart. Yesterday morning, Dah Mama came to Ambohimiandra hospital to comfort sick children and offered them gifts and treats to allow them to spend a Christmas of joy and happiness. She was, yesterday morning, at the bedside of 18 of them, forced to spend the end of the year there because they are undergoing treatment. They warmly thanked the artist who was very touched by their smiles and their thanks."

What to make of the wonderful vocalist Perle Noire? I haven't been able to find out much about her, other than that she's from the island of Nosy Be in northwestern Madagascar and quite popular. Her island origins may explain her musical style, especially the song we feature here, "Salama Salamina," which seems to owe a lot to the chakacha sounds of the Swahili coast of mainland Africa and the Comoros. We know that many people from the Comoros have settled in Madagascar and vice versa, and that Malagasy musicians often perform in that island country. To add to the mystery, we have this video, which is apparently in Malagasy and Swahili, or the Comorian variety of it. Can someone solve this for us?

Travelling now to the southwestern port city of Toliara (Tulear), we encounter the fiery local genre called tsapiky toliara. Born of the convergence of local styles, southern African music broadcast across the Mozambique channel, the ubiquitous soukous from Congo and any number of other foreign influences, it is the sound of the relatively poor southwestern region, isolated by many miles of bad roads from the capital Antananarivo. There are a number of tsapiky subgenres, including all-acoustic versions, but your modern electric tsapiky band usually features a guitar wizard, often accompanied by a sassy female vocalist. Here we listen to four of them.

Claudine Rasoakamisy, better known as Rasoa Kininike, "The Queen of Tsapiky," sadly passed away in a car accident on September 22, 2014 on her way to a show. Rasoa was from Tongobory in southwestern Madagascar, stopped her schooling at an early age and began making music when she was twelve years old. She then joined the group Los Belia and scored her first solo hit, "Fohaza Izay Miroro," in 1996. She caught the notice of the guitarist Pascal, who became her husband and musical partner. Malagasy Divas features her song "Manambaly Mampirafy" ("Happy Marriage"). Her son Lico is carrying on Rasoa's musical legacy.

A few years back Awesome Tapes From Africa shared with us a wonderful cassette by the group Mizeha, graced by vocalist Tsatsiky. Today we feature a tune by them called "Vorom-Be." Banning Eyre of Afropop Worldwide writes, "...On our recent visit to Tulear, Madagascar, the Afropop team met Lamily, the lead guitarist, and Tsatsiky, the lead singer, of the tsapiky band Mizeha. Since the mid-90s, this has been one of the most in-demand tsapiky acts for ceremonies – usually funerals, but also huge parties that last for days with non-stop tsapiky music. Mizeha means something like “young people gathering in a high place,” and the spot where Lamily and Tsatsiky, who are married, live seems to qualify. It’s perched on a high sand dune overlooking the town of Tulear and St Augustine Bay – very sweet. Their lives are tough as there are less ceremonies these days, mostly on account of deteriorating security in the countryside, but they seemed quite determined to press on with their music-making..."

I've been unable to find out anything about Mirasoa, who is ubiquitous in tsapiky videos, not only on her own but in collaboration with groups like Star, Los Belia and Les Metis. "Mahapotake"is her contribution to Malagasy Divas. Pretty sweet, no?

Mahafaly Mihisa has been called the "flagship" of the tsapiky toliara style, and here we present their killer track "Berene." The group was founded by Marcel Voriandro in Betioky, southwest Madagascar, in 2013. Midi Madigasikara writes, "... it is difficult to evoke this group without speaking of the voice of singer Nina. A comet, recalling the warmth of the south, enveloping with a liberating natural power. In octaves and accuracy, nothing to complain about, probably one of the best voices of the tsapiky at present. Between rhythms and guitar solos, sometimes organic, sometimes stealthy, her proud voice flows...."

By the way, if you're interested in more tsapiky toliara, I highly recommend the collection Tulear Never Sleeps (Sterns/Earthworks STEW 49CD, 2003), which you can purchase here. There is another fine compilation, Tsapiky: Panorama d'Une Jeune Musique de Tuléar (Arion ARN64661, 2004), which is unfortunately out of print (but you can get it here). Some years ago, the Aduna blog posted a wonderful collection, Tulear Market Mix 2008, which you can get here. Finally, our friend Matthew Lavoie recently posted Roots Tsapiky on his blog Wallahi le Zein. Get it here.

Finally we journey back north and close out this collection with "Tara Baly," in the mogodro style, a pumped-up, red-hot version of salegy from Sisca (real name Francisca Razafy), a native of Sofia region in northwest Madagascar. Ms. Razafy honed her style on the island of Mayotte, the French dependency off the coast of Madagascar. A multi-instrumentalist, she is quite popular throughout Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean islands as well as Madagascar. Here's another killer mogodro track:

So here I present Malagasy Divas for download. In a departure from my usual practice I'm not making the tracks available for individual streaming/download as they're meant to be listened to in sequence. I've supplied an inlay card if you want to make your own CD. I'm pretty proud of this compilation and I hope you like it also!

Download Malagasy Divas here.

Row 1: Monika Njava, Faniah, Hanitra Ranaivo
Row 2: Minah Bolimakoa, Aïna Quach, Wendy Cathalina
Row 3: Black Nadia, Tence Mena, Dah Mama
Row 4: Perle Noire, Rasoa Kininike, Tsatsiky (Mizeha)
Row 5: Mirasoa, Nina (Mahafaly Mihisa), Sisca

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Fast-paced Anioma Highlife From King Ubulu

A while back I made a few posts devoted to to music from Anioma, or the Igbo-speaking region of Delta State in Nigeria, immediately to the west of the Niger River. This style is generally faster-paced and harder hitting than mainstream Igbo sounds. I don't want to claim too much credit, but those write-ups may have spurred some interest in the genre, including recent reissues. One of the musicians I highlighted was King Ubulu. If I may be allowed to plagiarize myself, here is something I wrote about him for Toshiya Endo's African music discography:

Chief Augustine Ojinji, better known to Nigerian music fans as "King Ubulu" and "Love A.U.," breathed his last in late 2004. 
King Ubulu was born in 1949 in Amorji-Onicha in present-day Ndokwa Local Government Area, Delta State. Along with his fellow Ndokwa indigenes Charles Iwegbue and Rogana Ottah, he did much to advance the cause of Anioma (Western Igbo) highlife in the Nigerian music scene.His generosity was such that he was given the honorifics Ochiligwe ("Majority Leader"), Elishi Egwu ("Music Leader") and Ofodile ("Mighty"). 
Ubulu trained as a shoemaker, but soon opened a record store in Amorji. Because of his skill with the traditional repertoire, he was often asked to sing at funerals, naming ceremonies and other important occasions. Together with Agu Risky and a number of other musicians, he formed the Ubulu International Band in the early 1970s. The group's first LP, Ukwuani Special, was released in 1976 to wide acclaim, followed by a number of other releases. 
In 1983 the Ubulu International Band of Nigeria recruited the late Charlie Boogie of Cameroun, who brought much animation to the group's stage show with his penchant for playing guitar and keyboards with his teeth. 
In the 1986 album Onyebu Uwa Nishi, Ubulu warned against those who would try to copy his musical technique, as it came from water (presumably it was as transparent, flowing and natural as that substance).
Here is a 1992 album by King Ubulu, Ichonionun, SI 022 on the Super International label:

Download Ichonionum as a zipped file here.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Sweet 'n' Sour Sounds

We return once again to the Niger River Delta, and some more Ijaw-language highlife music in the style known as awijiri. The rather melancholy vocals and understated guitar work of this music have grown on me over the years - I can't get enough of it! I can tell you nothing about the Ebiogbo International Band other than they were from the small town of Agoloma on the Forcados River in Delta State.

Here is the one album by the Ebiogbo International Band that I'm aware of, Akpoesololo (Sann Records SR 3, 1984). Enjoy!

Ebiogbo International Band of Agoloma - Bayoukumo

Ebiogbo International Band of Agoloma - Akpoesololo

Download Akpoesololo as a zipped file here.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Tshala Muana: The Voice of Kasai

Acclaimed as one of Congo's greatest female singers, Tshala Muana over four decades in the business has emerged as the international ambassadress for Mutuashi, the insistent rhythm and dance style of Kasai Province in central Congo, very different from the mainstream soukous that is usually associated with the country.

She was born in Lubumbashi on March 13, 1958 and made her way to Kinshasa in 1976, where she joined M'Pongo Love's orchestra as a dancer. After recording two singles that didn't make a mark, she joined the group Minzoto Wella-Wella. It was in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, though, where she would make the acquaintance of the musician and arranger Jimmy Hyacinthe in 1981, that she finally made her breakthrough with her smash hit "Amina." Gary Stewart writes in Rumba on the River (Verso Book, London/New York, 2000):

With her straightened hair and evening gown, Tshala resembled one of the Supremes as she glided on stage at the cultural center of Abidjan’s Treichville neighborhood. She sang her songs and danced the mutuashi, a traditional dance of the Baluba from Zaire’s Kasai province. ‘Mutuashi,’she explained, was a Tshiluba word, a shout of encouragement for dancers that eventually became synonymous with the dance itself, and with Tshala Muana too. Subsequent appearances in Abidjan increased her nascent following. 
In 1982, financed by money borrowed from a friend, she flew to Paris with Hyacinthe’s band to cut a record. The A side, ‘Amina’ - a song given her by guitarist Souzy Kasseya, whom she’d met in M’Pongo Love’s band - packs a funky West African feel and lots of brass in support of Tshala’s tart commentary. 
     Amina, shake my hand.
     Even if you’re my opponent in this run-off.
     I can’t hold it against you.
     The world is like that, today it’s you, tomorrow it’s me.
     Amina, I know what I think,
     I’ve known a long time:
     A man is like a hospital bed that takes in all the sick.
     When you’re there it’s you,
     When I’m there it’s me. 
Tshala sang ‘Amina’ in French to reach the widest possible audience, while the B side, ‘Tshebele,’ presented a more traditional piece with a percussion driven sebene in the mutuashi style and lyrics in Tshiluba. Back in Abidjan, the finished disc was reported to have sold more than 11,000 copies in Cote d’Ivoire alone.
Amina / Tshebele was licensed to Roland Francis's African Record Centre in Brooklyn (African Record Centre ARCS 3690) and released in the US to little notice, but nonetheless, Tshala was on her way to international fame:

Tshala Muana - Amina

Tshala Muana - Tshebele

Here's another US pressing from the early '80s (Disco Stock-Makossa DMGM 500, 1984):

Tshala Muana - Akouffa

Tshala Muana's outstanding 1984 release Mbanda Matiere (Safari Ambiance SAS 051) showcasing the stellar guitar work of Souzy Kasseya, is the one that really cemented her international reputation. Recorded in Paris, featuring soukous and mutuashi and lyrics in Lingala and Tshiluba, it established her in her home country as well. The collaboration with Souzy Kasseya is one that has continued on and off throughout Muana's career:

In the late '90s Tshala Muana returned to Congo from a long sojourn in Paris. She has continued her recording career, serving as a mentor to younger musicians who will carry the mutuashi torch. She's also gotten involved in politics and efforts to improve the status of women. 

Download Amina/Tshebele as a zipped file here.

Download Akouffa/Chokepansh as a zipped file here.

Download Mbanda Matiere as a zipped file here.

An informative article about Tshala Muana by Ken Braun from The Beat (Vol. 10, No. 5, 1991) here.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The Morning Star Group

Here's a mysterious Nigerian album, Idanre Makin (Idanre Makin EILP 002) I got not too long ago - by a Yoruba vocal/percussion group led by Francis Akinde called Ẹgbẹ Irawọ Owurọ, whose name translates, as best I can tell, as "Morning Star Group." A lovely moniker, if Google Translate can be trusted!

The label and liner notes say nothing about this congregation, and give little indication as to what "style" the music is. It's within the broad spectrum of Yoruba percussion styles that we've been exploring recently. Enjoy!

Ẹgbẹ Irawọ Owurọ - Okungba So Gba / Ọrẹ Ma Ba Mi Je / Ibi Aiye Tire Aomo / Fiwa Jaiye Mo Boni Mi Rode

Ẹgbẹ Irawọ Owurọ - Ọla Mẹ Lọ Si Igbo Bini / Ede Sun Mi Daiko / E Are Babangida / Awa Feni Sọrọ

Download Idanre Makin as a zipped file here.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Jack of All Trades, Master of All

Footballer, guitarist and composer of many of the most memorable songs in Congolese music, Mayaula Mayoni (1946-2010) has often been overlooked. I posted one of his biggest solo hits, "Ba Chagrins", back in 2007.  The blog AfricOriginal ably summarized Mayaula's career in this post, which I reproduce here. Follow the link for pictures and further information about this well-respected musician. 
Born in Léopoldville (now Kinshasa) on the sixth of November 1946, Mayaula passes effortlessly through primary school. In 1962 he completed secondary education at the College of Kisantu. The young Mayaula appears to be a passionate and good football player. Between 1968 and 1971 he plays at a high level as a left winger in the first team of "AS Vita Club" in Kinshasa. In this period he is also selected for the national team of Zaïre.

When his father is stationed as a diplomat in Dar es Salam, Mayaula follows his father to Tanzania and plays some time with "Yanga Sports". Then he leaves for Charleroi in Belgium where he follows a course in data processing. In Belgium his talent is also noticed and he plays professional soccer with "Racing Club de Charleroi" and "Racing Club de Jette"in Brussels. He also plays for some time in Switzerland with "FC. Fribourg". In this period he gets acquainted with the guitar through a study friend. Also musically he shows himself a talented student and soon he joins the Congolese student orchestra "Africana" as rhythm guitarist.

When he returns to Kinshasa, Mayaula makes a career switch from professional soccer player to professional composer and musician. Back home he immediately draws the attention of his former football president and band leader Franco, who asks Mayaula to join his band and adds his song "Cherie Bonduwe" to the repertoire of his TPOK Jazz.

The melodic and thematically rich song receives much attention, not in the least because the National Censorship Commission prohibits the song. "Cherie Bondowe" presented the life of a prostitute from her point of view and is considered by the authorities as a defense of prostitution. The song was first released in Brussels, and rapidly found its way back to Kinshasa, despite the ban by the government.

Although Franco requested him to join TPOK Jazz, Mayaula Mayoni has never been an official band member of the TPOK Jazz. "He was something of an independent oddity in the music business" writes Gary Stewart in "Rumba on the River". "He prefered to compose his songs and then offer them to whichever artist he felt they fit. Many of his memorable efforts like 'Nabali Misère' and 'Momi' found their way to OK Jazz".

In 1977 it was female singer Mpongo Love who scored with Mayaula"s composition "Ndaya," a song that tells the story of a woman happy in her marriage and confident of keeping her husband, despite the overtures of other women.

Many people mistakenly think that Mayaula was not only a gifted guitarist and composer, but a good singer as well. Although he sometimes acted as background vocalist during recordings and live performances, he has never presented himself as a lead singer. Probably this misconception is caused by a picture on the cover of the album 'Veniuza', on which we find Mayaula behind the microphone.In 1981 Mayaula leaves Zaire together with some musicians from female singer Abeti's band Les Redoutables, to try his luck in West-Africa. In the period between 1981 and 1984 he records several solo LP's in Lomé (Togo) for the record label Disc-Oriënt'. In 1984 he returns to Zaire where he releases the album 'Fiona Fiona' in 1986. In the same year female singer Tshala Muana gains success with 'Nasi Nabali', a composition written by Mayaula Mayoni. He records his next album 'Mizélé' with the help of musicians of TPOK Jazz and singers Carlito Lassa and Malage de Lugendo.

In 1993 he hits the charts again with the album "L'Amour au Kilo". It then lasts until 2000, before he comes with a new album, "Bikini". Not long after the release of this album, Mayaula settles again in Dar es Salam, where he accepts a job at the diplomatic service. In the years that followed he began to suffer increasingly the consequences of hemiplegia, a disease that may result in loss of speech and paralysis of limbs. In 2005 he returns to his place of birth, Makadi. As his condition continues to deteriorate his family decides in cooperation with the authorities to bring Mayaula to Brussels for medical treatment. After a long illness of several month"s he dies in Brussels on May 26, 2010 at the age of 64 years. During his impressive career, Mayaula Mayoni was repeatedly voted "composer of the year" in Zaïre. In 1978 for the song "Bonduwe II", in 1979 for "Nabali misère" and in 1993 for the song "Ousmane Bakayoko".
I present here Mayaula Mayoni's album La Machine a Tube (Tabansi/Africa New Sound WNL 405), recorded during his Togolese sojourn in the early '80s:

Mayaula Mayoni - Veniuza

Mayaula Mayoni - Mokili Makambo

Mayaula Mayoni - Omari

Mayaula Mayoni - Sauce Ya Bolingo

Next I offer this late '80s LP Motors (Sukuma SUK 001), with Mayaula on Side 1 and guitarist/composer Dino Vangu on Side 2. I don't think this is a true collaboration between the two, but rather something that was stitched together by a record producer. Vangu is another often-overlooked figure on the Congolese scene. He got his start in Sam Mangwana's orchestra Festival des Maquisards in 1969 and then moved on to a number of other musical congregations, notably Tabu Ley Rochereau's Afrisa International. His guitar work with Afrisa is featured in several posts here at Likembe.

Mayaula Mayoni - Motors

Dino Vangu - Bondumba

Dino Vangu - Pumaza

Dino Vangu - Ngole

La Machine a Tube as a zipped file here. Download Motors as a zipped file here. Both files contain scans of the front and back covers as well as the labels.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

An Èwi Deep Dive with Lanrewaju Adepọju

Even if I weren't already a huge fan of Lanrewaju Adepọju, I would have bought this album for the cover art alone! Aláfọwósowópó (Lanre Adepoju Records LALPS 72, 1980) is a tribute to the cooperative movement in Nigeria: "The greatest weapon the masses have to fight the formidable forces of oppressive capitalism, mindless and the unconcerned attitude of few privileged rich overlords, is to form themselves into cooperative societies."

In a previous post, I wrote of Alhaji Adepoju and his mastery of the Yoruba poetic form known as èwi, of which this LP is a fine example. Many of his compositions deal with Islamic religious themes but apparently not the ones here. Although I know only a few words of Yoruba, I find his lyrical declamations thoroughly entrancing. And check out the instrumental breaks from 12:32 to 13:37 and from 16:01 to 16:46 in the first track. Somebody should sample those!

Download Aláfọwósowópóó as a zipped file here.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Raji Owonikoko's "Kwara System"

I just came into possession of a raft of great Yoruba recordings from Nigeria - lots of jùjú, àpàlà fújì, wákà, èwi, what have you - and I'll be sharing some of them with you over the next few months. For now we have on tap Raji Owonikoko, with his take on the venerable àpàlà genre, which he calls his "Kwara System." About àpàlà Christopher Alan Waterman writes in his excellent book Jùjú: A Social History and Ethnography of an African Popular Music (University of Chicago Press, 1990):

... Àpàlà, a praise song and social dance music, developed in the late 1930s in the Ijebu area, and was popularized by a musician named Haruna Ishola ... àpàlà groups generally included small hourglass-shaped pressure drums called àpàlà or àdàmòn, an àgídìgbo bass lamellaphone, several conga-type drums, and a metal idiophone such as an agogo or truck muffler (Thieme 1969). Like postwar jùjú, àgídìgbo and àpàlà drew upon Latin American recordings, preexistent popular genres, and deep Yoruba rhetorical devices. These social dance and praise song genres provided an urban-centered musical lingua franca, a set of stylistic coordinates for the construction of modem Yoruba identity. Each of them relied upon indigenous principles as a unifying framework for innovation... 
The rather sedate, philosophical sound of àpàlà, whose foremost practitioners were the late Haruna Ishola and Ayninla Omowura, gave way to the more frenzied sounds of jùú, fújì and the like, but it's never disappeared, and has been given new life in recent years by artists like Musiliu Haruna Ishola, son of Haruna Ishola, who was featured in a previous Likembe post.

Alhaji Mohammed Ahmed Raji Alabi Owonikoko, better known as Raji Owonikoko, is one of the musicians who have carried the àpàlà torch into the present day. At least judging from today's musical offering, Kwara System Originator (Olumo ORPS 58, 1977), his "Kwara System," named after his home state, adds a few uptempo fillips to the basic sound. In a 2012 interview with PM News (Lagos) he said:

...I hail from Kwara State. My father is a native of Buhari while my mother hails from Ijomu, Oro both in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State. I was born in Oro that is why many people believe I am from Oro ... I grew up with elderly friends and contemporaries. I became more popular among them because I always sang during Ramadan fasting period, waking Islamic faithful in the community at dawn to observe Shaur [Suhoor] ... As a result of my talent, I became the leader of our musical group. Thereafter, I moved to Lagos with some members of the group where I recruited others to join my group. Along the line, I met King Sunny Ade, and Jide Smith, who was into music instrument rentals. I eventually changed to àpàlà music genre because of the love I had for the late àpàlà music sage, Alhaji Haruna Ishola, in spite of other types of music around then...
I hope you will enjoy this offering of àpàlà, Kwara style!

Download Kwara System Originator as a zipped file here.

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Master of the Ngurumi and the Biram

I present today four cassettes by Malam Maman Barkah, the Niger Republic's acclaimed master of two traditional instruments of that area - the ngurumi, a two stringed lute (pictured), and the biram, a five-stringed harp. Malam Barkah passed away on November 21 of last year to much sadness in Niger and the neighboring Hausa-speaking areas of Nigeria. Radio France International reported, "Great emotion this morning in Niger when the local press reported the death of musician Malam Maman Barka, immensely popular in his country and also well known in neighboring Nigeria. The popularity of Malam Maman Barka is explained by his mastery of biram, a very particular instrument, and also by his committed songs."

My understanding is that while Maman Barkah sang mainly in the Hausa language, he was a member of the nomadic Toubou people, born in Tesker, southern Niger, in 1958 or 1959. He started his professional life as a teacher and learned the ngurumi, a two-stringed lute common in the Sahel region, where it is known by various names. It was as a master of this instrument, and his incisive lyrics which addressed classical themes as well as current events and notable individuals, that Maman Barkah achieved fame throughout Niger and northern Nigeria. This led to many appearances throughout the world.

In 2002 Malam Barkah received a grant from UNESCO to travel to the shores of Lake Chad and learn the biram, a five-stringed harp played by the Boudouma (Yedina) people of the region. The instrument, considered sacred, had fallen into disuse. Before passing, the last living master of the biram, Boukou Tar, taught Maman Barkah the secrets of the instrument and gave him his own. Before his death Malam Barkah was the director of the Center for Music Promotion and Training (CFPM) "El Hadji Taya" in Niamey, the capital of Niger.

The four cassettes in this post are the result of two cassette-hunting expeditions: By me in Kano, Nigeria in 1995 and by my wife Priscilla in Jos, Nigeria in 1998. He was very popular throughout the region! All feature Maman Barkah on the ngurumi. Recordings of him playing the biram are available on the CD Introducing Mamane Barka (World Music Network INTRO114CD, 2009).

Labeling for the songs here is very confusing. Africa 1 and Africa 4 seem to be mispackaged or mislabeled, as the songs don't seem to correspond to listings on the inlay cards. Africa 2 and Republic Niger No. 4 do seem to be properly labeled. Not knowing how to determine the proper song titles I've just listed them as they appear on the cassettes, and the extra songs are just labeled "Song Title Unknown." I'd appreciate it if someone could clear the confusion up for us.

I confess I haven't paid these cassettes much attention since obtaining them in the '90s. However, repeated listenings in the course of preparing them for this post have given me a new appreciation for this music. I had always thought that the mysterious Korean lady who appears on the covers of three of the cassettes was Malam Barkah's wife, but apparently that picture was taken during a musical performance in North Korea!

Here is Africa 1:

Maman Barkah - Amerame

Maman Barkah - Gourmi Story

Maman Barkah - Iyani Mai Towo

Maman Barkah - Feronguila

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown

Maman Barkah - Massagui

Maman Barkah - Awa Sakehali

Maman Barkah - Zaman Duniya

Maman Barkah - Beghue Tunani

Maman Barkah - Arri Na Bin Tou

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown

Download Africa 1 as a zipped file here.

While digitizing these cassettes I realized that side 2 of the cassette Africa 1, apparently a reissue, actually contains the full contents of Africa 2! (There are around 45 minutes of music on each side). As the recording quality of Africa 1 is superior I've gone with that version:

Maman Barkah - Tabaraka Allah

Maman Barkah - Oubedatu

Maman Barkah - Massoyi da Massoya

Maman Barkah - Dabarabara

Maman Barkah - Maman Maki

Maman Barkah - In Nabaki Mikike

Maman Barkah - Beby Elinna

Maman Barkah - Archatelfara

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown (Instrumental)

Download Africa 2 as a zipped file here. I don't have Africa 3, but here is Africa 4. Who knows how many volumes were released?

Maman Barkah - Nahissa

Maman Barkah - Kidan Maman Daban

Maman Barkah - Aochatou Dogoya

Maman Barkah - La Six

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown

Maman Barkah - Mousha Shagaumu Talki

Maman Barkah - In Ada

Maman Barkah - We Day Hassour

Maman Barkah - Song Title Unknown

Download Africa 4 as a zipped file here.

The final cassette here, Republic Niger No. 4 (no connection with Africa 4 above), seems to be the most recently recorded:

Maman Barkah - Tankari Dan Garba No. 1

Maman Barkah - Rammá Ta Mirria

Maman Barkah - Tankari Dan Garba No. 2

Maman Barkah - Kar Ki Bami A

Maman Barkah - Delu El Fulani

Maman Barkah - Hawa Merama

Maman Barkah - Er Komatou

Maman Barkah - Tankari Dan Garba No. 3

Download Niger Republic No. 4 as a zipped file here.

Two CDs by Maman Barkah, Introducing Mamane Barka and Guidan Haya, are available from Amazon. Follow the links!

Here is a clip of Maman Barkah playing the biram in 2010: